I bambini e le emozioni

Essere consapevoli delle proprie emozioni e riuscire a gestirle ed esprimerle ci permette di costruire relazioni positive con noi stessi e con gli altri. 
E’ fondamentale cominciare a lavorare sulla consapevolezza delle emozioni sin da bambini.

Può sembrare difficile riuscirci, specialmente in una società complessa come la nostra, caratterizzata da profondi cambiamenti, dal rapido mutamento di valori di riferimento e dalla contraddizione dei modelli culturali, ma è indispensabile tendere al superamento dell’analfabetismo emozionale per realizzare una comunicazione educativa che dia spazio all’espressione delle emozioni.
Per uno sviluppo complessivo della personalità dei bambini è necessario “educare alle emozioni” e superare lo stereotipo che valorizza i processi cognitivi a scapito di quelli emozionali. Crescita affettiva e cognitiva sono due aspetti correlati dello sviluppo della persona, non c’è vera autonomia personale senza consapevolezza emotiva, così come l’apprendimento, in qualsiasi situazione, è sempre connesso all’emotività e alle relazioni. Per avere una vita soddisfacente e ricca di interazioni, occorre, dunque, mettere in pratica “l’intelligenza emotiva”, intendendo con essa l’autoconsapevolezza, ossia la capacità di riconoscere le emozioni, di costruire un vocabolario per la loro verbalizzazione, cogliere i nessi tra pensieri, sentimenti e reazioni.

Secondo diversi studi le emozioni sono presenti fin dalla nascita, sono quindi innate e gioia, paura, rabbia e tristezza le provano anche i bambini, seppur non consapevoli. Tutte le emozioni hanno la stessa importanza, e non sono né positive né negative. È infatti fondamentale aiutare il bambino a riconoscerle e ad esprimerle con le parole, il corpo, i gesti, il movimento, la creatività, la musica, il gioco, la relazione.

Spesso i bambini hanno difficoltà a descrivere l’emozione che stanno provando, e quindi a nominarla, per questo occorre l’aiuto dell’adulto per identificarle e classificarle, e solo così il bambino potrà imparare a distinguerle, ed esprimere più facilmente il suo stato d’animo. Riconoscere e gestire le emozioni è importante perché aiuta il bambino a conoscersi, ad instaurare delle relazioni positive, a sviluppare l’empatia, a potenziare l’autocontrollo. Saper affrontare i vissuti di rabbia, paura, tristezza e felicità sono capacità che richiedono impegno e attenzione.

Per insegnare ai bambini a comprendere e distinguere le emozioni si possono utilizzare alcune strategie. Creatività, gioco, esplorazione, riflessione e atmosfera socio-affettiva sono elementi favorevoli. Ai bambini più piccoli si possono fare osservare delle figure-volti che esprimono le emozioni di base, per valutare la capacità del bambino di riconoscerle. Per tutti i bambini si possono utilizzare le attività creative, attraverso le quali i bambini esprimono il loro mondo interiore, si possono far conoscere le emozioni giocando e utilizzando il corpo, ad esempio per agire la paura si potrebbe correre, gridare, piangere, tremare, per la rabbia battere i piedi, buttare i peluche a terra, disegnare, stropicciare un buono arrabbiatura.

Ogni giorno è possibile essere “genitori allenatori emotivi” organizzando attività con i figli e aiutandoli a riconoscere le emozioni come punto di forza che dona armonia e non, come spesso accade, un fiume in piena che travolge, perché, come scrive il pedagogista Alexander Neill “L’unica buona educazione è quella che permette alle emozioni di essere libere”.

(Valentina Murgo)


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